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7 Comments on “Emulating Sequences in MySQL and MariaDB”

  1. Hi Geoff
    Using DEFAULT to generate the value won’t work on MariaDB 10.2, because stored functions cannot be used in that clause. I think we’ll have to use triggers

  2. Hi I have been using my Own sequence Generator, with will enable you to use multiple sequencers:

    * It is thread safe
    * Will never have problems with a heavy loaded and concurrent environment.
    * Allow you to get sequence values per Application name and Sequence Name
    * They can be used in Triggers

    You Just Need three things:

    1) A table to store the sequence metadata (last Sequence Value)
    2) The stored Procedure that will do the Job
    3) The Stored function which will use the stored procedure internally, because in mysql, you cannot insert, update or delete data inside a function.

    1) Table structure
    CREATE TABLE `__syssequences` (
    `systemName` CHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    `sequenceName` CHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    `sequenceStep` INT(11) DEFAULT ‘1’,
    `lastValue` INT(11) DEFAULT ‘1’,
    `lastInsert` DATETIME DEFAULT ‘0000-00-00 00:00:00’,
    `lastUpdate` DATETIME DEFAULT ‘0000-00-00 00:00:00’,
    PRIMARY KEY (`systemName`,`sequenceName`)
    ) ENGINE=INNODB ROW_FORMAT=FIXED

    ——————————————————————————–
    2) The stored procedure (SP):
    DELIMITER $$

    DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS `__spSysGetNextSequence`$$

    CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`localhost` PROCEDURE `__spSysGetNextSequence`(
    IN _systemName CHAR(50),
    IN _sequenceName CHAR(50),
    IN _currentValue INTEGER,
    IN _forceIncrement TINYINT(2),
    INOUT _newValue INTEGER
    )
    MODIFIES SQL DATA
    BEGIN
    INSERT INTO __syssequences VALUES (IFNULL(_systemName,”), _sequenceName, LAST_INSERT_ID( IF(_currentValue>0, _currentValue, 1) ), NOW(),NOW())
    ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE lastValue:=IF(LAST_INSERT_ID(0)=0,
    IF(IFNULL(_currentValue,0) > VALUE, LAST_INSERT_ID(_currentValue),
    IF((IFNULL(_currentValue,0)=0) OR (_forceIncrement=1), LAST_INSERT_ID(lastValue+(IFNULL(sequenceStep,1))), lastValue)), LAST_INSERT_ID(0)),
    lastUpdate := NOW();
    SET _newValue := IF(LAST_INSERT_ID()>IFNULL(_currentValue,0), LAST_INSERT_ID(), LAST_INSERT_ID(IF(IFNULL(_currentValue,0)>0,_currentValue,1)));
    END$$

    DELIMITER ;
    —————————————————————————

    3) The Stored function (fn)

    DELIMITER $$

    DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS `__fnSysGetNextSequence`$$

    CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`localhost` FUNCTION `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(
    _sequenceName CHAR(50),
    _currentValue INTEGER,
    _forceIncrement TINYINT(2)
    ) RETURNS INT(11)
    READS SQL DATA
    BEGIN
    CALL `__spSysGetNextSequence`(”, _sequenceName,
    _currentValue,_forceIncrement, _currentValue);
    RETURN _currentValue;
    END$$

    DELIMITER ;
    ———————————————————————————————————————————-

    NOTES:

    I didnt have the time to document previous stuff, but with examples maybe you can get an idea of what is all about:

    – I have added ‘__’ as a suffix to the table name because it have to be one of the first tables alphabetically ordered, so when you generate a global dump file, the table data of the sequences but be the first one to be restored.

    – The ‘__’ added to the Stored Procedure and function are only for having them displayed at first in the DB administrator.

    – Warning: Althought you can this function in triggers (On Insert) , it is not recommended, because when you bulk restore the data to the tables, it can take longer than expected, because for each record it will call the function. If you used them in triggers I recommed you to:
    a) When restoring your database try to restore (create) the triggers after the data in restored
    b) Disable the usage of the function inside the trigger by having a condition based in am environment variable or something, that will only change before restoring the data.

    Usage Examples:
    ##Normal Usage
    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 0, 0); ##Returns 1 (first creation of sequence)
    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 0, 0); ##Returns 2 (Autoincrements when 3rd parameter (_currentValue) is ‘0’)
    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence02’, 0, 0); ##Returns 1 (first creation of sequence)

    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp2’, ‘MySequence01’, 0, 0); ##Returns 1 (first creation of sequence)
    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp2’, ‘MySequence01’ ,0, 0); ##Returns 2 (Autoincrements when 3rd parameter (_currentValue) is ‘0’)

    ##Forced Usage
    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 5, 0); ##Returns 5. if _currentValue is greater than last sequence value stored, it will become the greatest sequence value for now on.

    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 0, 0); ##Returns 6. Return Next Value (previous was 5)

    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 1, 0); ##Returns 1. if _currentValue is lower than last sequence value stored, it will just return the same _currentValue, without changing any stored sequence value.

    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 0, 0); ##Returns 7. Because previous Value was not altered.

  3. I forgt to add a last example:

    select `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(‘MyApp1’, ‘MySequence01’, 1, 1); ##Returns 8. Because, althought, 1 is less than 7, the last parameter ‘_forceIncrement’ is se to 1, so it will force the incremental of the sequence.

  4. There is a small errata in the function, definition, I forgot the put the ‘_systemName’ parameter:
    Here is the correct script:
    ——————————————————————————————-
    DELIMITER $$

    DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS `__fnSysGetNextSequence`$$

    CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`localhost` FUNCTION `__fnSysGetNextSequence`(
    _systemName CHAR(50),
    _sequenceName CHAR(50),
    _currentValue INTEGER,
    _forceIncrement TINYINT(2)
    ) RETURNS INT(11)
    READS SQL DATA
    BEGIN
    CALL `__spSysGetNextSequence`(_systemName, _sequenceName,
    _currentValue,_forceIncrement, _currentValue);
    RETURN _currentValue;
    END$$

    DELIMITER ;
    ——————————————————————————————

  5. Wouldn’t it be nice if MySQL simply gave us a function: TableName.nextval() or a getNextVal(‘TableName’)
    that actually grabbed the NEXT AUTO_INCREMENT value, and updated the system_information to add one, so the next time you call it, it is the next value.

    That would allow me to call it 20 times in a row, and allocate 20 values, as they came through. Then others, using the normal Auto_Increment feature would work just fine.

    It seems like such a SIMPLE implementation concept. It’s not like they dont update that field internally when we do an insert.

    1. Hi Kirk,

      Thanks for reading my blog post! Your suggestion sounds interesting. If you want something like that in MariaDB, feel free to submit a feature request on their JIRA:

      https://jira.mariadb.org

      However, please keep in mind that MariaDB 10.3 will have sequences as defined by the SQL standard, so those may be more useful in future MariaDB versions than new functions built around auto-increment values.

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